How to Build an Indeterminate Checkbox in React

Fun fact: Did you know that HTML checkboxes have three built-in states, not just two? In addition to the checked state, there is also an indeterminate state. You can’t set a checkbox to indeterminate with HTML, only with JavaScript. Here’s what they look like in the browser:

Why Would You Need An Indeterminate Checkbox?

As you can see, they can be useful for “select all” checkboxes that can be in a “some but not all selected” state. Let’s look at how we can build a react component for a three-state checkbox.

How It Will Work

You need more than props in this case. The only way to set a checkbox to indeterminate in HTML and Vanilla JavaScript is setting the prop in JavaScript like this:

document.getElementById("my-checkbox").indeterminate = true

Instead of "checked={value}", two hooks working together manage the visual state of the checkbox. First, useRef maintains a reference to the element, so that you can manage the indeterminate property directly. Then, the useEffect hook manages the changes by executing code on the reference.

First, Our Boilerplate

import React, { useRef, useEffect } from 'react'

export const CHECKED = 1
export const UNCHECKED = 2
export const INDETERMINATE = -1 

const IndeterminateCheckbox = () => <input type="checkbox" />

export default IndeterminateCheckbox

We’ll need to define a trinary state here. I like using -1 for the third “maybe” state of this boolean operation.

Modeling Our Props

We’ll only require one prop here, the value of the checkbox. To increase the flexibility of our component, we should pass other props down to the input element. This way, whoever uses our component has access to modify all other props, so they can set onClick handlers for example. Here’s a pattern you can use to handle certain props specifically while passing the rest down the component tree.

const IndeterminateCheckbox = (props) => {
  const { value, ...otherProps } = props
  return (
    <input type="checkbox" {...otherProps} />

Managing the Three Stages.

Now we can use the value to manage the three states. Situations where we need to execute code every time props change is a perfect case for useEffect. Every time the component renders or the value changes, we need to adjust both the checked and indeterminate properties. useRef provides a reference for managing those changes inside of useEffect.

const IndeterminateCheckbox = (props) => {
  const { value, ...otherProps } = props
  const checkRef = useRef();

  useEffect(() => {
    checkRef.current.checked = value === CHECKED
    checkRef.current.indeterminate = value === INDETERMINATE
  }, [status])

  return (

And there you have it! A way to manage a three-state checkbox with React. While there isn’t a ton of use cases for this kind of structure, I like this example because I feel like it gives a clear example of three React principles:

  1. Making your components more flexible with the other props pattern.
  2. Using useRef to modify elements in non-standard ways.
  3. Using useEffect to trigger events based on prop values.

How to Build an Indeterminate Checkbox in React
Fun fact: Did you know that HTML checkboxes have three built-in states, not just two? In addition to...